System Integration and Improvements


Prototype configuration



Prototypes are composed of mutiple mechanical parts mimicking insect morphology:

Eclated view of the prototype

  • The thorax:  it serves as a support for the future electronics and batteries would be embedded
  • The tergum: it acts with actuatr as a resonator to save energy
  • The wings: it creates and bear aerodynamic force using passive torsion mechanism
  • Transmission: it realizes a direct coupling between tergum and wings to optimize energy transfer







The transmission is composed of four compliant torsional hinges that allow a direct coupling between tergum and wings.


Figure 2: (a) All-SU-8 wing dorsal view (optical picture), and (b)-(e) its cross-sections (SEM). As shown in (c) and (d), the ratios of thickness to width of LEVs are around 0.5 to 0.7, close to those of natural LEVs. (e) shows membrane thickness.

The wings are fabricated completely in SU-8 or are composed of PDMS membranes and SU-8/PDMS/SU-8 triple-layered veins.  SU-8 wings approach real ones in overall weight, vein pattern, flexural stiffness and mass distribution. Our process allows an easy, reliable and fast way to produce artificial wings of complex geometry and morphology mimicking natural insect wings.

The wing motion is composed of a flexion motion that creates an important velocity of the membrane and a favorable angle of attack emerge from dephased torsion motion.